About Diseases


Hemorrhoids, emerods, or piles are swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. The anatomical term "hemorrhoids" technically refers to "'Cushions of tissue filled with blood vessels at the junction of the rectum and the anus." However, the term is popularly used to refer to varicosities of the hemorrhoid tissue. Perianal hematoma are sometimes misdiagnosed and mislabeled as hemorrhoids, when in fact they have different causes and treatments.


Anal fissures are a natural crack or tear in the skin of the anal canal. Anal fissures may be noticed by bright red anal bleeding on the toilet paper, sometimes in the toilet. If acute they may cause severe periodic pain after defecation but with chronic fissures pain intensity is often less. Anal fissures usually extend from the anal opening and are usually located posteriorly in the midline, probably because of the relatively unsupported nature of the anal wall in that location. Fissure depth may be superficial or sometimes down to the underlying sphincter muscle.


An anal fistula, or fistula-in-ano, is an abnormal connection between the epithelialised surface of the anal canal and (usually) the perianal skin.

Anal fistulae originate from the anal glands, which are located between the two layers of the anal sphincters and which drain into the anal canal. If the outlet of these glands becomes blocked, an abscess can form which can eventually point to the skin surface. The tract formed by this process is the fistula.


Perianal hematoma is a type of hematoma located in, or on the border of the anus. It can be misdiagnosed as a hemorrhoid, but is sometimes referred to as an external hemorrhoid.


A pilonidal cyst, also referred as a pilonidal abscess, pilonidal sinus or sacrococcygeal fistula, is a cyst or abscess near or on the natal cleft of the buttocks that often contains hair and skin debris.


An anal abscess (also known as an anal/rectal abscess, peri-rectal/peri-anal abscess, or ano-rectal abscess) is an abscess (a large pocket of infection) adjacent to the anus.
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